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问答题 Practice 2  One of the most important developments in newspaper organization during the first part of the twentieth century (1)______, which are known as wire services. Wire service companies employed reporters, who covered stories all over the world. Their news reports were sent to papers throughout the country by telegraph. The papers paid an annual fee for this service. Wire services continue (2)______. Today the major wire services are the Associated Press (AP) and United Press International (UPI). You will frequently find AP or UPI at the beginning of a news story.  Newspaper chains and mergers began to appear in the early 1900s. A chain consists of two or more newspapers (3)______. A merger involves combining two or more papers into one. During the nineteenth century many cities had more than one competitive independent paper. Today in most cities there are only one or two newspapers, and (4)______. Often newspapers in several cities belong to one chain. Papers have combined (5)______. Chains and mergers have cut down production costs and brought the advantages of big-business methods to the newspaper industry.[A] to play an important role in newspaper operations[B] was the growth of telegraph services[C] and they usually enjoy great prestige[D] they are usually operated by a single owner[E] in order to survive under the pressure of rising costs[F] owned by a single person or organization animation[G] fails to raise enough money.

问答题 Practice 1  Heat loss by sweating depends on the fact that when a liquid evaporates, it absorbs an enormous quantity of heat from its surroundings. Therefore, when I am of sweat evaporate, a great deal of heat is absorbed from the surface of the body in contact with it. 1______  2______ The first is the amount of movement of air surrounding the body. The second is the amount of water vapor in the air that surrounds the body.  3______ For this reason, sweat evaporates very rapidly on windy days, and the rate of heat loss by sweating is much more than on a still day. This accounts for the fact that hot still days are much less comfortable than hot windy days. In contrast, the sweat evaporates very rapidly on hot windy days, and cools the body quickly and effectively.  4______ When air is carrying the maximum amount of water vapor that it can hold, it is said to be 100% saturated with water vapor. The relative humidity of the air is said to be 100%. Under these conditions the air cannot carry any water, so no water can evaporate. When the relative humidity is high, therefore, sweat cannot evaporate. Instead, it forms large drops and runs off your skin without cooling you.  5______ It is obvious that under these conditions, evaporation will be much more rapid. Therefore, sweating will be much more effective as a method of losing heat from the body. On a hot dry day, sweat evaporates as soon as it is formed, and you feel reasonably cool even though the temperature of your environment is very high.[A] When the air is very dry and carries no water at all, the relative humidity is said to be 0%.[B] The second factor is the amount of water vapor in the air-the humidity.[C] Hot windy days are much more comfortable than hot still days.[D] This heat transfer occurs even if the environment is hotter than the body.[E] When air moves over the surface of water, the amount of evaporation is greatly increased.[F] You might expect the highest incidence of a heat stroke when the maximum temperature is 100 and humidity is 50%.[G] Two factors affect the rate of evaporation of sweat, and therefore the effectiveness of sweating as a method of cooling the body.

问答题 Practice 1  Extremely hot weather is common in many parts of the world. Although hot weather just makes most people feel hot, it can cause serious medical problems even death. Floods, storms, volcano eruptions and other natural disasters kill thousands of people every year. (1)______ Experts say heat may be nature’s deadliest killer. Recently, extreme heat was Named for killing more than one hundred people in India It is reported that the total heat of a hot day or several days can affect health. (2) ______ Experts say heat waves often become dangerous when the nighttime temperature does not drop much from the highest daytime temperature. This causes great stress on the human body.  (3) ______ Stay out of the sun, if possible. Drink lots of cool water: Wear light colored clothing made of natural materials; avoid wearing synthetic clothing. Make sure the clothing is loose, permitting freedom of movement. And learn the danger signs of the medical problems, such as headache and vomiting, that are linked to heat. (4) ______ The pain is a warning that the body is becoming too hot. Doctors say those suffering headache or muscle pain should stop all activity and rest in a cool place and drink cool liquids. Do not return to physical activity for a few hours because more serious conditions could develop.  Doctors say some people face an increased danger from heat stress. (5) ______  Hot weather also increases dangers for people who must take medicine for high blood pressure, poor blood flow, nervousness or depression.[A] Such persons have a weak or damaged heart, high blood pressure, or other problems of the blood system.[B] Several of these conditions are present at the same time.[C] Most people suffer only muscle pain as a result of heat stress.[D] Several hot days are considered a heat wave.[E] So does extreme heat.[F] Doctors say people can do many things to protect themselves from the dangers of extreme heat.[G] Heat can be both beneficial and dangerous.

问答题 Practice 1  Americans are proud of their variety and individuality, yet they love and respect few things more than a uniform, whether it is the uniform of an elevator operator or the uniform of a five-star general. 1______  2______People have become conditioned to expect superior quality from a man who wears a uniform. The television repairman who wears uniform tends to inspire more trust than one who appears in civilian clothes. Faith in the skill of a garage mechanic is increased by a uniform. What easier way is there for a nurse, a policeman, a barber, or a waiter to lose professional identity(身份) than to step out of uniform?  3______They save on other clothes. They save on laundry bills. They are tax-deductible(可减税的). They are often more comfortable and more durable than civilian clothes.  4______Though there are many types of uniforms, the wearer of any particular type is generally stuck with it, without change, until retirement. When people look alike, they tend to think, speak, and act similarly, on the job at least.  5______Though they are long lasting, often their initial expense is greater than the cost of civilian clothes. Some uniforms are also expensive to maintain, requiring professional dry cleaning rather than the home laundering possible with many types of civilian clothes.[A] For this reason, more and more factories begin to give out uniforms to workers.[B] Why are uniforms so popular in the United States?[C] Uniform also have many practical benefits.[D] Uniform is also an indication of people’s position.[E] Among the arguments for uniforms, one of the first is that in the eyes of most people they look more professional than civilian clothes.[F] Primary among the arguments against uniforms are their lack of variety and the consequent loss of individuality experienced by people who must wear them.[G] Uniform also give rise to some practical problems.

问答题 Directions: Read the following texts from which five sentences have been removed. Choose from the sentences A—G the most suitable one to fill each numbered gap in the text (1—5). There are TWO extra sentences that you do not need to use. Mark your answers on your ANSWER SHEET.  Practice 1  1 ______ For this reason, there is a current boom in language learning for business people. But unless they can speak a foreign language really well, it is best to save it for socializing.  2 ______ And psychologists say that your body language is much more important than what you say. Doing the wrong thing, making eye contact, touching, using people’s first names, even how you eat and drink—can all be hazardous for people who are unfamiliar with certain cultures.  3 ______ In low context cultures such as North America, Britain, Sweden and Germany, people say things very plainly, and rely on clear verbal communication. High context cultures such as France, Japan, Spain, Saudi Arabia, China and South Korea often use silence or hand signals to communicate, and this can sometimes be as important as speaking.  4 ______ In Japan, people bow to each other. In England, people shake hands firmly, but not very often—while in places like Italy and France people shake hands all the time but not as firmly as the English. The Germans and the Danish nod their heads while they shake hands, as a mark of respect, while people in Mediterranean countries sometimes lean their heads backwards while doing the same thing.  5 ______ For example, the British kiss each other once, on the right cheek, the French kiss each other twice, first on the left cheek and then on the right, but in some cultures, especially in the Middle East, they kiss up to four times and still shake hands![A] But actions speak louder than words.[B] Trying to make people from other cultures feel comfortable can be confusing as well.[C] One of the most important aspects of doing business internationally is being able to speak other languages.[D] Some cultures communicate by using signals.[E] Cultures are divided into “low context” and “high context”.[F] Shaking hands is often the most common form of greeting people, but even this can create problems.[G] As a rule, though, close physical greetings such as kissing are not a good idea.

问答题 Practice 1  Britain (or Great Britain) is an island that lies off the north-west coast of Europe. The nearest country is France, which is 20 miles away and from which Britain is separated by the English Channel. The island is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the North Sea to the east. 1______ Scotland is in the north, while Wales is in the west. Ireland, which is also an island, lies off the west coast of Britain. It consists of Northern Ireland and the Irish Republic. Britain together with Northern Ireland constitute the United Kingdom (UK). Thus, the United Kingdom is composed of four countries, the largest of which is England. The capital city is London, which is situated in south-east England.  2______ About 70% of the land area is devoted to agriculture, about 7% is wasteland, moorland and mountains, about 13% is devoted to urban development, and 10% is forest and woodland. The northern and western regions of Britain, that is Scotland and Wales, are mainly mountainous and hilly. 3______  Britain has a generally mild and temperate climate. It is, however, subject to frequent changes. It has an average annual rainfall of about 120 centimetres (47 inches).  4______ The density of population was approximately 240 people per square kilometre. However, in England, where 83% of the population live, the density was much higher, about 363 per square kilometre.  5______ However, in western Wales, Welsh is the first language for many of the people. In Scotland only a small number of people speak Gaelic.  In Britain about 66% of the population say that they are Christian, while fewer than 5% say that they belong to other religions.[A] The UK has a total area of about 244,100 square kilometres (94,248 square miles).[B] In the UK, English is the first language of the vast majority of people.[C] It comprises the mainlands of England, Wales and Scotland, that is, three countries.[D] The U. K. is a country that is both ancient and modern.[E] In 1998, the population of the United Kingdom was nearly 59 million.[F] UK transportation system is very convenient and fast.[G] Parts of the north-west and centre of England also consist of mountains and hills.

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