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学历语言类 | 国外英语考试

单选题 Sharing accommodation may be ______.

A

approximately A$10, 000 per year cheaper than living alone.

B

more expensive than living alone.

C

not suitable for some students.

D

suitable for most students.

问答题 Passage 2  A  A new type of tourism, coined “ecotourism”, has recently emerged and is quickly gaining in popularity as a leisure activity. Ecotourism, a type of “getting-back-to-nature” excursion, brings people into environmentally sensitive areas to view exotic and, more often, endangered plants and animals. Proponents of this type of travel such as John Whiteman, a partner in a tourism and community development consulting firm, and Stefan Gossling from the Human Ecology Division of Lund University, view ecotourism as not only beneficial but essential to both the environment and economies of these often-depressed regions. Through such an ecological experience the traveler is supposedly changed or “spiritually renewed”, and gains a new-found respect and sensitivity for nature. This, in turn, is expected to promote more environmentally responsible decisions in daily life. Whiteman states, “While there, tourists enjoy a sense of spiritual renewal. And they leave behind an intact ecosystem and increased wealth for the local community”. Furthermore, the governments and citizens of the areas in question are, presumably, encouraged to take steps to preserve these tourist sights in order to continue to reap the benefits of the tourist dollar.  B  Unfortunately, when popular sites of ecotourism such as Uganda and the Galapagos Islands are carefully examined, it becomes apparent that ecotourism does not provide the benefits so readily claimed by its proponents. The economies of these regions see little benefit. The local people remain impoverished, and offer no protection to the environment: in fact, they are often angered enough to lash out against these fragile ecosystems. The environment is harmed directly by the physical presence of tourists; it is simply not possible to bring people into an area where few humans would otherwise exist without altering or harming the very environment which we seek to preserve. From ostensibly small effects such as crushing plant life underfoot and soil erosion, to larger effects such as altered animal behavior, it is highly probable that the ecological footprint left by tourists will not go unnoticed. As Heather Lindsay observes in Ecotourism: The Promise and Perils of Environmentally-Oriented Travel, “even harmless-sounding activity like a nature hike can be destructive, as hikers can contribute to soil erosion and damage plant roots”. Upon examination, the ecological dangers of ecotourism are readily apparent.  C  In both Uganda’s Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (BINP) and the Galapagos Islands, altered animal behavior is a significant concern. Studies have shown that, when in the presence of tourists, animals abandon their nesting and feeding sites. Perhaps worse, when animals become accustomed to the presence of tourists, they lose the instinct to flee thus leaving them vulnerable to poachers. In BINP, habituation of the gorillas is fundamental to ecotourism so that they may be safely observed by tourists. Unfortunately, this purposeful habituation may have led to the gorillas losing the instinct to flee from poachers or soldiers. In looking at this problem, Hamilton tells us that “initial indications are not encouraging”. What then, will become of these animals if they lose the instinct to flee from danger in their environment? Surely the outlook is not promising. Losing their survival skills places these animals at risk for extinction.  D  In the Galapagos, habituation of the wildlife is not intended; however, it has been noted that, “Scientists began noticing behavioral changes in the animals such as iguanas waiting for tourists to give them bananas”. It has also been observed that the normally docile male sea lions of the Galapagos have recently become more aggressive. In her work, Ecotourism and Sustainable Development: Who Owns Paradise? Martha Honey states that, at present, it is unclear if this aggression can be attributed to an increase in tourism or an increase in sea lion population. Some scientists believe that the impact of tourism on other mammals and birds is minimal but that the system is becoming weak in particular areas. It is important to note that a particular area of the Galapagos is now closed because turtle nests and vegetation were so badly trampled by tourists that these species were threatened with imminent extinction.  E  Beyond the issues of altered animal behavior and trampled vegetation is the problem of newly introduced organisms to these visited ecosystems. When tourists arrive, they present the threat that they carry with them, on their person or in their mode of transportation, bacteria, disease, animals and insects foreign to the environment. This is one of the biggest issues the Galapagos Islands are currently facing. Honey states, “At the top of the agenda of many scientists and park officials is tracking and eliminating the introduced species plants, animals, insects, fungi, bacteria that are brought in by boat or plane by tourists, new immigrants, and illegal fishing operations”. The problem with this is that many of these foreign organisms are capable of “out-competing” the unique indigenous species of the Galapagos. Since the native species of the Galapagos evolved without the threat of such organisms, they may be driven to extinction, leaving the ecosystem irreparably changed. For example, black rats introduced to Pinzon Island kill tortoises as they hatch. Pigs on Santiago Island eat the eggs of sea turtles, thereby reducing their survival rate from eighty percent to a mere three percent while introduced aphids are killing native plants. In a related article by Martha Honey and Ann Littlejohn, Paying “the Price of Ecotourism, Tom Fritts, a biologist with the National Biological Survey, calls this “a critical time” for the ecosystems of the Galapagos Islands, and speaks of its current state as being pushed “towards the brink of disaster”. The stakes are high. Ecosystems are forever changed by the consequences of tourism. Fritts tells us that we are dangerously near the “precipice of irretrievable damage”. Simply, certain damages cannot be undone. There is no remedy for extinction.  F  Adams and Whiteman argue that the revenue from ecotourism is no less than essential to the survival of these protected areas since money is needed for maintenance and protection and to encourage locals and their governments to take an interest in conservation. However, economic benefits for local communities are not what they should be, and this often fosters a sense of ill will, encouraging such things as poaching and violent acts against the ecosystem. Moreover, it seems to be a paradoxical issue, because if the environment is destroyed, what has been accomplished by ecotourism? Guidelines for successful ecotourism are offered by many proponents and critics alike, yet these guidelines lack a reasonable ecological position when applied to such sensitive areas as the Galapagos and the BINP. There is no compromise possible where such fragile environments and unique species are concerned. Guidelines cannot render our presence harmless nor can they let us off the hook for the ensuing damage.  Look at the following statements (Questions 1-8) and the list of people below. Match each statement with the correct people, A-F. Write the correct letter, A-F, in boxes 1-8 on your answer sheet.  NB You may use any letter more than once.  1. The native plants are confronting threats from foreign organisms resulting from ecotourism.  2. The states should play a role in keeping the sights so as to satisfy the demand of ecotourism.  3. It is easy to find that ecotourism is harmful for the soil and plants.  4. Sufficient funds are necessary to stimulate local government to conserve ecotourism sight.  5. The initial problem for some scientists is to remove introduced species brought by alien visitors.  6. Animals are deprived of their nature.  7. It is lack of evidence to prove that tourism improvement brings about changes of animals temper.  8. We are about to be in a danger of damage from ecotourism.  A. Heather Lindsay  B. Hamilton  C. Tom Fritts  D. Adams and Whiteman  E. John Whiteman  F. Martha Honey

问答题 Passage 3Tidal Power on the Cheap?  A  The startup, located on the Orkney Islands, way north of Scotland, has raised £6.2 million to build a working prototype of a floating tidal turbine that it says will be cheaper to install and maintain than others being tested now. The 8-meter-long prototype, ideally, will go into the water at the European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) Tidal Test Site that sits just down the road from ScotRenewables in 2010. Commercial versions of the turbine will measure up to 40 meters long and weigh 250 tons, but generate 1.2 megawatts of power.  B  “That’s quite impressive when you compare it to others,” said CEO Barry Johnston. “We want to be competitive with offshore wind.” Rather than anchor a permanent turbine on the ocean floor, ScotRenewables will build a floating turbine that is slack moored with chains to an anchor on the sea floor. The body of the turbine-a long 40-meter tube of metal with a point at the end-will face directly into the tide. Below, two turbines attached to fins will convert the power of the tides into electricity. Johnston explained “A 1-meter prototype ScotRenewables is experimenting with in the wave tank is built. It looks like a model rocket with two fins with propellers attached to the ends of the fins.”  C  Tidal is the potentially most predictable, reliable form of renewable energy. With a tide table and computer, ScotRenewables can calculate the power output of a turbine decades in advance. You can’t do that with intermittent, variable sources like wind, solar or wave. Unfortunately, harnessing tidal power is quite difficult. Some of the prototypes that have been tested in the decades are quickly destroyed by rushing tides. Pulling those turbines up from the sea bed and taking them into the shop consumes time and money. Taking the ScotRenewables turbine in for repairs should be easy: maintenance workers would just have to take a boat out, unhook it, and put another in its place while the first is being entangled.  D  Tidal power is also 50 percent stronger at the surface than at the seabed so these turbines should be capable of generating more power. Other companies have tried to create surface tidal turbines before. The difficulty has been keeping the turbine pointed in the direction of the tide. Some get washed away. Other times, the creators build large superstructures around the turbine, which costs money. ScotRenewables says it will come up with control mechanisms and advanced hydrodynamics (i.e., aerodynamics in water) to keep the turbines pointed in the right direction.  E  Scotland is betting heavily on wind and wave power. The notoriously harsh waves and currents of the Pentland Firth, a channel which separates the main body of the U.K. with the Orkneys that is often referred to as the Saudi Arabia of Marine Energy by locals. By 2020, Scotland wants to get half of its power from renewable sources, including large hydroelectric dams. Hydroelectric constitutes about 11 percent of the country’s power now and 9 percent comes from wind and other renewables. A large portion of the new renewable sources of power will come from wind, tidal and wave. Marine energy could provide up to 35 terawatt hours of power to the U.K. by 2020 and 84 terawatt hours of power by 2050, according to Edwina Cook, business development officer at EMEC. The U.K. in 2004 consumed 340 terawatt hours of power. The EMEC has created tidal and wave testing centers for companies to build and validate prototypes. (The Pelamis-that sea snake looking wave power device-was tested at EMEC before commercial rollouts in Portugal.) The government has also passed exceptionally large credits for power providers that put tidal and wave power on the grid. (Prototypes participating in the EMEC test beds are actually connected to the grid and selling small amounts of power.) The hope is that the programme will create jobs, exports and green energy. Offshore, the Dublin based open Hydro Power is already testing a large tidal device that looks like a big rotating fan.  F  Talking about the prototype and commercial power production, however, is easier said than done. ScotRenewables did not like the software simulation tools it found when it first set out. Some software focused on tidal changes; others focused on waves. To build an effective surface tidal turbine, Johnston realized that both tidal and wave power should be taken into account. Thus, it had to build its own tools, which cost several thousands. It also built its own wave tank. It was easier than trying to book time at an EMEC wave tank. The company now hopes to lease time on the tank to other wave companies to generate revenue. And, because ships to deploy tidal and wave devices are in short supply, it is contemplating buying or building its own multi-purpose vessel.  Which paragraph contains the following information?  Write the correct letter, A-F, in boxes 1-4 on your answer sheet.  1. New plan has been made to involve a new factor besides tidal.  2. Damages have happened to the models in the past years.  3. A detailed structure of a model is demonstrated.  4. The immature model is expected to apply at the beginning of the twenty first century after further development.

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